2023-2024 Undergraduate Catalog

Business Administration

The California Lutheran University School of Management provides a learning environment in which students can realize their full potential for professional preparation and personal growth.

One of the degree options in the School of Management is a bachelor of science in business administration that combines a solid background in the liberal arts and sciences with an in-depth study of the business-related disciplines.

Students who earn a degree in Business Administration from CLU will develop an understanding of the important concepts related to the effective functioning of businesses, including accounting, organizational behavior, statistics, legal environment, business communications, and economics. In addition, students will select an area of emphasis which will allow them to focus on a particular field within business administration. Generally, three courses (or 12 credits) from a menu of approved electives for that emphasis are required.

Emphasis Areas:

  • Innovation and Entrepreneurship
    The Innovation and Entrepreneurship emphasis is aimed at providing a solid foundation in innovation, value creation, and the realization of new business ventures. Students are prepared for careers as entrepreneurs and small business owners, as well as successfully working with or for such businesses.
  • Finance
    The finance emphasis is aimed at equipping students to work in the field of finance. Students may be prepared for a career within the finance function of an organization in other industries, depending upon the mix of emphasis area courses chosen.

  • Global Business
    A global business emphasis engages students in the study of international business and topics relevant in today’s global economy. Students are prepared to work in the global business community, or the international function within a domestic business, depending upon the mix of emphasis area courses chosen.
  • Management
    An emphasis in business management provides students with an understanding of concepts from to the field of management. Depending upon the mix of emphasis area courses chosen, different career paths may be highlighted.
  • Marketing
    A marketing emphasis prepares students for employment in the field of marketing, or within the marketing function of an organization in any industry.  Depending upon the mix of emphasis area courses chosen, students may develop an understanding of marketing functions such as advertising, marketing research, sales, and product development.
  • Economics

Cal Lutheran encourages students to work in the business world through internships, and the university environment provides an opportunity to experience the world of national and international business. Students benefit from Cal Lutheran’s research and service-oriented centers including the Steven Dorfman Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Center for Economic Research & Forecasting, and Center for Economics of Social Issues. 

A degree in business administration allows a graduate to enter a variety of business careers including business ownership, banking, management, marketing, international trade and consulting.

The Cal Lutheran School of Management also offers graduate courses leading to the Master of Business Administration. Eligible undergraduate students can take graduate-level courses during their senior year by participating in the "4+1" program. 

Bachelor of Science in Business Administration

50 credits minimum (34 credits upper division in Business Administration, Entrepreneurship, and Economics);18 supporting credits = 68 total credits

Internship/Independent Study Policy for Emphasis Requirement: A maximum of 4 credits combined total of Independent Study (BUS 490) or Internships (BUS 492) may count toward the 12-credit requirement for the emphasis. Students are free to strengthen their emphasis area with additional Independent Study or Internship credits beyond the 12-credit minimum.

If a student specializes in more than one emphasis area, no emphasis elective courses can overlap among the emphasis areas.

BUS 251Principles of Accounting4
BUS 252Managerial Accounting4
BUS 256Business Analytics I2
BUS 356Business Analytics II2
BUS 367Behavior in Organizations4
BUS 374Business Law,4
BUS 375Principles of Marketing4
BUS 381Info Systems & Organization Design4
BUS 391Principles of Finance,4
ECON 311Statistical Methods4
Choose one of the following 4 credit courses:4
BUS 469Strategic Management4
BUS 470Executive Roundtable Capstone (By invitation only)4
BUS 467Business Academic Competition4
BUS 485Seminar (Additional fees may apply)4

Required Supporting Courses

BUS 151Introduction to Business2
ECON 203General Economics4
BUS 301Communication for Managers4
or COMM 306 Business and Professional Communication
MATH 245Applied Calculus (or equivalent)4
Select one of the following:4
Business Ethics
Contemporary Christian Ethics
Total Hours18

Business Economics Emphasis

A minimum of 12 credits of the following:12
Quantitative Analysis in Business
Money and Banking and Capital Markets
Intermediate Macro-Economics
Intermediate Micro-Economics
Economics of the Environment
International Economics
Economic Development
International Finance
Investment Analysis/Portfolio Developmt
Independent Study
Introduction to Personal Finance

Innovation and Entrepreneurship Emphasis

A minimum 12 credits of the following:12
Take the following two courses:8
ENT 101Creativity and Innovation4
ENT 301Starting a Startup From Ideas to Action4
Choose one of the following4
Launching a Startup
Global Entrepreneurship

Finance Emphasis

A minimum 12 credits of the following:12
Intermediate Finance
Corporate Finance
Financial Strategy
Raising Capital,
Real Estate Finance and Investments
International Finance
Investment Analysis/Portfolio Developmt
Intermediate Accounting
Independent Study
Introduction to Personal Finance

Global Business Emphasis

A minimum 12 credits of the following:
Take the following course:
BUS 394Global Business4
A minimum of 8 credits of the following:8
International Finance
International Marketing
Global Business Behavior
Seminar (may not count towards capstone requirement)
International Economics
Economic Development
Global Political Economy
Global Entrepreneurship
Independent Study
Introduction to Personal Finance

Management Emphasis

A minimum 12 credits of the following:12
Fundaments of Sustainable Business
Introduction to Sports Management
Employee Benefits & Retirement Planning
Human Resource Mangement
Negotiation and Persuasion
Fund Raising for Non-Profit Organization
Event Planning and Management
Organization Development
Managerial Leadership: Core Competencies
Project and Change Management
Global Business Behavior
Independent Study
Introduction to Personal Finance

Marketing Emphasis

A minimum 12 credits of the following:12
Marketing Research/Consumer Behavior
Copywriting/Storyboarding Broadcast Adv
Negotiation and Persuasion
Sales Management
Principles of Advertising
Sports-Related Marketing
Entertainment Industry Marketing
Integrated Marketing Communication
Brand Development & Customer Exp
Social Marketing
Digital Marketing
International Marketing
Advertising Art I
Independent Study
Introduction to Personal Finance

Minor in Business Administration

20 credits minimum in Business Administration and Economics (12 credits minimum upper division); 4 supporting = 24 total credits

BUS 251Principles of Accounting4
BUS 252Managerial Accounting4
BUS 391Principles of Finance,4,
Select two of the following:8
BUS 367Behavior in Organizations4
BUS 374Business Law,4
BUS 375Principles of Marketing4
BUS 381Info Systems & Organization Design4
ECON 311Statistical Methods4

Required Supporting Course

ECON 203General Economics4
Total Hours4

Minor in Entrepreneurship

20 credits minimum. The Entrepreneurship minor is aimed at students majoring in subjects other than business – providing a solid foundation in innovation, value creation, and the realization of new business ventures. The minor is deeply interdisciplinary, incorporating elements of economics, sociology, communications, finance, general business and others.

ENT 101Creativity and Innovation (Required)4
ENT 301Starting a Startup From Ideas to Action4
Select one or both of the following:
Launching a Startup
Global Entrepreneurship
Select one or two of the following:
Agile Product Development
Entepeneurial Marketing & Selling
Legal Aspects of Entrepreneurship
Growth-Stage Venture Management
Special Topics
Sales Management

Business Admin Courses

Lower Division

BUS 151. Introduction to Business. (2).

This course introduces students to key foundational skills in business literacy, introductory business writing, business courtesy, business reading, and business networking. It provides students with opportunities to immerse in the business fields and form a sense of community. It is designed for first-year business students and first-semester transfer students to learn about the business landscape and set the foundation to further pursue a business education.

BUS 251. Principles of Accounting. (4).

An introduction to the basic assumptions that underlie modern accounting: the principles, procedures and methods applied in the preparation of financial statements.

BUS 252. Managerial Accounting. (4).

An examination of how accounting data is used, communicated and interpreted for internal use. Emphasis is placed on planning, control and decision making, particularly in a manufacturing setting. This course will include instruction in and application of computer spreadsheet programs. The student will be required to use word-processing and spreadsheet programs for work submitted during this course. In addition, an introduction to and use of Internet research resources are included in the course syllabus. Prerequisite: BUS 251.

BUS 253. Financial Info in Bus Organization. (4).

This course is designed for non-business majors who are not required to take Principles of Accounting or Managerial Accounting. The intent of the course is to provide students with sufficient background in accounting and finance to allow them to function more effectively in their chosen careers. To that end, the course will cover the basics of financial accounting and managerial accounting, with some additional material typically covered in finance and economics courses.

BUS 255. Environment of Business. (4).

This course provides an introduction to and an overview of topics and disciplines addressed and taught in a typical Schools of Management curriculum. The topics are important background for the non-business major. It is an introductory-level treatment of course topics required in business emphasis areas: Accounting, Finance, Marketing, Management, Economics, and others. Career Services on campus are the basis for assignments with a focus on career readiness. Spreadsheet software is taught and used for completing assignments for the course. Importantly, expectations and standards for further coursework will be communicated so students are better able to set goals for success in their academic pursuits and chosen career.

BUS 256. Business Analytics I. (2).

This course introduces and explores the use of data analytics applied in business disciplines. The course focuses on effective communication of data, including descriptive analytics, data visualization, storytelling with data, and thinking critically about data. Prerequisite: MATH-110 or higher.

BUS 257. Practicum in Accounting. (2).

Basic principles of accounting will be presented as a review for a solid foundation in GAAP and accounting. The course will include theory, as well as the completion of hands on financial statements using Excel and other software.

BUS 260. Personal Financial Planning & Risk Mgmt. (4).

Focuses on the general principles of financial planning, including: the financial planning process, the regulatory and ethical environment, consumer protection law, personal financial statements, budgeting, debt financing, educational planning, and client communication. Also provides an in-depth introduction to risk management and insurance, including life, health, disability, long-term care, property and casualty, umbrella liability and annuities.

BUS 282. Selected Topics. (1-4).

BUS 282C. ST: Select Topic (core). (1-4).

Select topic approved to satisfy core.

BUS 2ST. Special Topics. (4).

BUS 4ST. Selected Topic. (4).

Upper Division

BUS 301. Communication for Managers. (4).

The study of business communications methods with emphasis on planning, organizing, preparing and presenting major reports. Significant use of computer skills will be included, as well as design and structure of communication materials for the highest levels of impact.

BUS 330. Fundaments of Sustainable Business. (4).

The course provides comprehensive introduction to the sustainability concept & its major themes such as renewable resources, clean enerby & fuel orgnizations and other stakeholders in building the organizations's business model & strategies for a sustainable future is examined. Student explore opportunities for individuals & companies.

BUS 341. Prin Estate & Income Tax Planning. (4).

Examines estate planning documents, estate tax minimization strategies, the transfer of property via probate, titling, contracts, trusts and gifting, and forms of business entity. The coverage on federal income tax planning will primarily be focused in the following three areas: tax-planning considerations, tax computations and tax-planning strategies.

BUS 342. Marketing Research/Consumer Behavior. (4).

A detailed focus on marketing research, strategy, statistical techniques and decision-theory concepts. Includes the nature of the influences affecting consumer behaviors, values, lifestyles, market segmentation, motivation and attitudes that form consumer marketing decisions. Prerequisite: junior standing.

BUS 343. Employee Benefits & Retirement Planning. (4).

This course will provide an understanding of how corporate and individual retirement planning integrates together for the benefit of the business owner, executive and employee. Topics include retirement needs analysis, social security benefits, qualified and non-qualified plans, rules governing qualified plans, individual retirement accounts, retirement income planning and employee benefits.

BUS 344. Copywriting/Storyboarding Broadcast Adv. (4).

Designed as a "hands-on" communication and business course, this course provides an overview of broadcast media and develops skills in basic advertising/public relations campaign production techniques including scripting, copywriting and storyboarding. (cross-listed with COMM 344).

BUS 347. Introduction to Sports Management. (4).

Includes (a)sport law - impact of the legal process on sport, (b)sport economics - how the price and market system, income and employment affect the sport enterprise, (c)sport marketing/promotion - effect of marketing and promotion on the economic well-being of the organization,(d)sports administration - overview of the total responsibilities of the sport administrator, including planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling the sports enterprise.

BUS 350. Data Communication and Networks. (4).

Includes a discussion of distributed data processing, communication techniques, wide-area and local-area networks, integrated services digital network, open-systems interconnections, security and network management.

BUS 352A. Intermediate Accounting. (4).

Includes detailed coverage of accounting theory and practice as applied to the corporate form of business. Topics include income statement, earnings per share, income tax allocation, compound interest, revenue recognition, price-level accounting, an introduction to fund accounting and a thorough treatment of balance sheet accounts. Prerequisites: BUS 251 (for BUS 352A), BUS 352A (for BUS 352B).

BUS 352B. Intermediate Accounting II. (4).

Includes detailed coverage of accounting theory and practice as applied to the corporate form of business. Topics include income statement, earnings per share, income tax allocation, compound interest, revenue recognition, price-level accounting, an introduction to fund accounting and a thorough treatment of balance sheet accounts. Prerequisites: BUS 251 (for BUS 352A), BUS 352A (for BUS 352B).

BUS 353. Accounting Information Systems. (4).

This is an introductory course in accounting information systems. The course is designed to cover five major themes: 1) Conceptual foundations of accounting information systems 2) Control and audit of accounting information systems 3) Accounting information systems applications 4) The REA data model 5) The systems development process. Pre-requisite: BUS 252.

BUS 354. Theology and Business Ethics. (4).

This course applies ethical theory to business decisions within the context of theological reflection. With a strategic focus, the course will investigate the relationship between theological ethics and the economic concerns of managers. The course is particularly designed to help students become effective ethical agents by developing the skills to apply ethical principle to strategic business decisions. (cross-listed with REL 354).

BUS 355. Client/Server Fundamentals. (4).

Discusses modern technology in network communication and cooperative computation. Topics include client/server design concepts, software expectations, hardware requirements, service support and training issues. Prerequisite: CSC 220 or CSC 300.

BUS 356. Business Analytics II. (2).

This course extends the concepts and methods in business analytics. It provides a hands-on experience to a collection of predictive modeling techniques used to extract patterns and trends from data. The topics include supervised and unsupervised data mining and decision-making under uncertainty.

BUS 361. Human Resource Management. (4).

A study of the use of the human resources within the organization. Includes recruiting, selecting and training employees, wage administration and union relations. Focus is on government regulation of employment practices, including Equal Opportunity Employment and affirmative action.

BUS 365. Organization Theory. (4).

Analysis and design of modern organizations with an emphasis on organizational technology. Perspectives include organization design, organization effectiveness and changing organization culture, and the organization and its external environment. Attention is given to emerging global realities. Integrates theoretical knowledge with practical applications.

BUS 367. Behavior in Organizations. (4).

An introduction to the methods and findings of the behavioral sciences on the persisting human problems of organizations. Attention is given to the roles of individual attributes, group dynamics and organizational structure in determining levels of performance at work. Prerequisite: junior standing.

BUS 368. Human Resource Mangement. (4).

A study of the use of the human resources within the organization. Includes recruiting, selecting and training employees, wage administration and union relations. Focus is on government regulation of employment practices, including Equal Opportunity Employment and affirmative action. Prerequisite: BUS 367.

BUS 369. Negotiation and Persuasion. (4).

This course covers theories, strategies, and ethics underlying negotiation and persuasion in contemporary organizations and societies. Students will learn the concepts and principles pertinent to real world negotiation process. It provides the students the knowledge and skills needed for effective negotiation and persuasion, psychological persuasive exchanges of the social contract, assessments of communication styles during negotiation and persuasion processes, empirical foundation of the discipline of relationship sales. Prerequisite: BUS 367 (Recommended).

BUS 370. Multimedia Technology. (4).

Introduces modern multimedia technologies. Topics include basic concepts, principles, sound images, animation, standards, hardware and software requirements, new technologies, current research and practice, and future directions.

BUS 374. Business Law. (4).

The study of law as it relates to business. Topics include contracts, agencies, commercial paper, personal property, sales, real property and insurance.

BUS 375. Principles of Marketing. (4).

The study of marketing methods and practices. Topics include policies and problems related to consumers, pricing, advertising, management information systems and distribution and management of the marketing function. Prerequisite: junior standing. (cross-listed with COMM 375).

BUS 376. Sales Management. (4).

This course concerns the sales and sales management functions as they exist in business-to-business sales settings. The course discusses current problems in sales management and the design of effective sales management processes and systems. Prerequisite: BUS 375.

BUS 380. Principles of Advertising. (4).

An exploration of advertising from an integrated marketing communications perspective. Focus is on general principles and broad perspectives with particular emphasis on strategy and the role of advertising in an integrated program. Students will examine consumer motivation, planning and development, the creative process and campaign execution and evaluation. (cross-listed with COMM 380).

BUS 381. Info Systems & Organization Design. (4).

This course investigates the nature and uses of various types of information systems in business organizations, including decision support systems, expert systems, executive and management information systems, and communication systems. Examines the relationships between information system use and business strategy and the applications of information systems in the development of competitive advantage. Surveys the major components of business information systems (hardware, networks, data and applications) and investigates the interrelationships between information, systems, organizational structure, processes and strategy.

BUS 391. Principles of Finance. (4).

Introduces students to the field of finance through an applied conceptual framework using problem sets and computer software to analyze various financial dilemmas. Topics include security valuation, risk analysis, working capital management, financial budgeting and planning, time value of money concepts, financial ratio analysis and capital budgeting. Prerequisite: BUS 252; MATH 115, 145, or 245.

BUS 392. Intermediate Finance. (4).

Students learn to appreciate the usefulness and limitations of financial statements in valuation concepts and financial analysis and are made aware of the value of the role of financial information in capital markets. Concepts are reinforced through problem sets. Prerequisite: BUS 391.

BUS 393. Corporate Finance. (4).

Provides a conceptual framework for analyzing the major types of investment and financial decisions of corporations. The course reviews modern financial theory related to capital structure, cost of capital, dividend policy, intermediate and long-term financing, corporate restructuring and capital budgeting. Employs a mix of problem sets and cases. Prerequisite: BUS 391.

BUS 394. Global Business. (4).

This course covers global trade and its effect on the world economy. Includes the problems of the multinational firm and the impact of numerous environmental factors on the conduct of business across national boundaries, including but not limited to regional, cultural, and treaty-based boundaries. Some elements of "international" terminology remain due to nation-based regulatory, currency, and other requirements.

BUS 395. Financial Strategy. (4).

Deals with corporate financial strategies primarily in the areas of valuation, capital structure, external financing, bankruptcy, mergers and acquisitions. These issues are addressed mostly in the context of case studies that illustrate how ideas studied in introductory finance courses are applied to real-world situations. Prerequisite: BUS 391.

BUS 396. Personal Financial Plan & Risk Mgmt. (4).

Focuses on the general principles of financial planning, including: the financial planning process, the regulatory and ethical environment, consumer protection law, personal financial statements, budgeting, debt financing, educational planning, and client communication. Also provides an in-depth introduction to risk management and insurance, including life, health, disability, long-term care, property and casualty, umbrella liability and annuities.

BUS 398. Raising Capital. (4).

Raising capital is an important part of many, if not all, businesses. This course covers many aspects of finance that are relevant to raising capital, using advanced modeling. Topics include cash management, forecasting, the analysis of capital needs, valuation, sources of capital: venture capital, angel capital, crowdfunding, IPO, and Initial Coin Offering, capital table, shareholder equity, and etc. Prerequisites: BUS 391 or ENT 301.

BUS 400. Graphical User Interface. (4).

An introductory course to user interface fundamentals. Topics include development methodologies, evaluation techniques, user-interface building tools, considerations in the design phase, identification of design rules and successful delivery of the design. Prerequisite: CSC 220 or CSC 300.

BUS 410. Database Management Systems. (4).

Studies the concepts and structures necessary to design and operate a database management system. Topics include data modeling, relational database design and database querying.

BUS 411. Sports-Related Marketing. (4).

An introduction to management and marketing issues in the sports industry, with a particular emphasis on major and minor league professional sports. Students will receive a broad overview of the structure of sports and its relationship to the dominant culture, the economy and the media. (cross-listed with COMM 411).

BUS 412. Entertainment Industry Marketing. (4).

Entertainment has become the dominant experience of consumers in a celebrity-driven culture. Technological innovations from the Internet/Web to social networking to mobile devices and the cloud have disrupted the entertainment industry - film, music and TV. Social media have enabled consumers become co-producers and changed the business models of the entertainment industry. How have social networks altered advertising and marketing by entertainment firms? What are the implications of a globalized market for producers and consumers of entertainment? What are the ethical and environmental sustainability implications of these changes - does consumer empowerment come at the expense of citizen empowerment? Students will examine these issues and develop skills and perspectives to evaluate marketing approaches in the entertainment industry.Cross-listed COMM-412.

BUS 420. White-Collar Crime. (4).

This course will provide students with a critical examination of white-collar crime and deviance, its impact on society, and what might be done to address this social problem. Cross-listed with CRIM 420.

BUS 422. Non-Profit Leadership. (4).

This course will provide an introduction to principles and practices of leadership with a focus on the challenges facing management in nonprofit organizations. The elements of the course include a survey of important issues facing the nonprofit sector and best practices with a focus on personal leadership development and implementation. Topics will include governance, strategic planning, volunteer retention, organizational leadership, strategic partnerships and fundraising. Study includes incorporation of experiential service learning opportunities to enhance development of core leadership skills and models. The assessments of student learning to be used in this course are outlined below.

BUS 425. Arts Management and Museology. (4).

This is a cross-disciplinary course merging Management, Art and Museum Studies to give students an insider view of the art world. By the end of the term students will have mastered multiple business models and will have executed an art exhibition from start to finish, including all aspects of curation, marketing and writing. Junior standing required. Cross-listed with ART-425.

BUS 429. Executive Roundtable. (4).

This course is designed to provide students with an appreciation of how management and finance theory are integrated into the strategies of the modern corporation. Each week, a different company executive provides a real-world perspective on how decisions are made and strategies are implemented in the modern corporation.

BUS 430. Integrated Marketing Communication. (4).

This course explores the role of communications in marketing management, the strategic integration of promotional tools, and the application of generic IMC concepts in various social and organizational contexts-commercial, non-profit, domestic, and international. Communication trends and technologies are illuminated. The impact of marketing communications on individuals and on society as a whole is critically evaluated. Through readings, discussions, and analyzing cases, students learn how communications objectives are accomplished through carefully chosen combinations of public relations, advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, database and online marketing. Prerequisite: BUS 375 / COMM 375 Principles of Marketing.

BUS 431. Brand Development & Customer Exp. (4).

Students will study the keyconcept, contexts & processes of brand management. This course will focus on consumer brand engagement.

BUS 432. Non-Profit Leadership. (4).

This course will provide an introduction to principles and practices of leadership with a focus on the challenges facing management in nonprofit organizations. The elements of the course include a survey of important issues facing the nonprofit sector and best practices with a focus on personal leadership development and implementation. Topics include governance, strategic planning, volunteer retention, organizational leadership, strategic partnerships and fundraising. Study includes incorporation of experiential service learning opportunities to enhance development of core leadership skills and models.

BUS 435. Fund Raising for Non-Profit Organization. (4).

The primary goal of this course is to acquaint you with the vocabulary and the basic strategies and tactics of professional fundraising. While the course won't make you an expert at fundraising, it will offer you valuable perspective about how to find the money necessary to fund operations. We also want to go from the theoretical into the practical with the use of projects to allow you to test our your ideas in the real world.

BUS 439. Senior Seminar Mgmt Thought & Practice. (4).

The consideration of classic and contemporary writings on issues related to the management of the business enterprise and the role of business in the larger society. Prerequisite: senior standing.

BUS 440. Marketing Simulations. (4).

Emphasis is placed on the marketing planning function, consumer identification and buyer behavior, marketing strategies and price-value relationships.

BUS 442. Advertising Campaigns. (4).

Advances the principles learned in introductory advertising and marketing courses and includes the application of principles learned through the completion of an actual consumer-oriented marketing/advertising campaign. Includes lecture and lab. Prerequisites: BUS 375, senior standing. (cross-listed with COMM 442).

BUS 443. Event Planning and Management. (4).

The study of the theory and practice of various forms of event planning and management. The class will be using a hands-on approach and will include lessons on budget, décor, entertainment, types, and security issues. (cross-listed with COMM 443).

BUS 446. Theories and Practice of Leadership. (4).

Examines leadership from theoretical, historical and practical perspectives. Includes topics of trait, behavioral and contingency theories; the influence process; management vs. leadership, leadership and followership. Survey of leadership theory and research; characteristics of leaders, theories of leadership origins and psychological and social correlates. Interaction of personal and organizational factors in determining leadership effectiveness.

BUS 447. Social Marketing. (4).

Reflecting the needs of social entrepreneurs, NGOs and nonprofit organizations, the course explores the use of marketing to effect behavioral changes for the benefit of individuals, society and the global environment. Social marketing is viewed in various organizational and cultural contexts, both domestic and international. Trends and technologies are critically evaluated. Through reading, discussion and practical application, students learn how social marketing objectives are accomplished through carefully chosen combinations of research, planning, implementation and program evaluation. Prerequisite: BUS 375 / COMM 375.

BUS 448. Organization Development. (4).

The study of planned change in organizations including diagnosis of the organization and implementation of organization development interventions. Emphasis on teamwork in organizations and survey development. Prerequisite: senior standing.

BUS 449. Managerial Leadership: Core Competencies. (4).

Focuses on the development of the core competencies and skills needed for effective managerial leadership at all levels of the organization. Each skill component will follow a five-step developmental pedagogy: (1) Assessment, (2) Learning, (3) Analysis, (4) Practice and (5) Application. Prerequisite: senior standing.

BUS 450. Advanced Public Relations. (4).

Students strengthen their command of the processes and techniques of public relations and apply them strategically to real-world PR stations. They apply the full process of public relations management, including research and analysis, planning, implementation, and control and evaluation, while producing a strategic PR plan and professional media kit. They role-play crisis communications planning and response in an emergency PR exercise. Ethical considerations in PR management are examined; the impact of current PR practices on individuals and society are critically evaluated. Prerequisite: COMM 342.

BUS 451. Cost Accounting - Computer Application. (4).

Advanced study of the procedures used to determine costs for manufacturing operations. Includes process and differential costing, overhead allocation, profit-volume analysis, joint products and by-products and responsibility accounting. Emphasis is placed on making informed business decisions based on quantifiable data. Prerequisites: BUS 252; junior standing.

BUS 452. Tax I. (4).

A study of current federal tax laws and issues as they pertain to the individual taxpayer. Cases are used to provide practical experience in implementation of tax law interpretations; emphasis is placed on the evolution of the philosophy that drives development of the federal tax code. Prerequisite: BUS 251. (offered one semester each year).

BUS 453. Auditing. (4).

Covers the legal responsibilities, theory and procedures in the conduct of an audit and the making of an audit report. Prerequisite: BUS 352B. (offered one semester each year).

BUS 454. Advanced Accounting. (4).

Accounting for business combinations and the preparation of consolidated financial statements. Also includes accounting for partnerships, consignments, foreign currency translation, fund accounting and international accounting. Prerequisite: BUS 352B. (offered one semester each year).

BUS 455. Ethics for the Accounting Professional. (4).

This course focuses on the role accountants and the accounting profession have in both business as well as in society as a whole. Students learn the history, legal, and ethical responsibilities of the accounting profession in addition to various legislation that has impacted it over recent years. The course will review the legal, regulatory and professional responsibilities of accountants, tax preparers and auditors. The course will also cover the teachings of various ethicists, sociologists and philosophers through the review of their theorems and approaches to ethical reasoning and behavior on an individual, organizational and societal level. This course introduces students to ethical reasoning, integrity, objectivity, independence and the use of a strong moral compass in guiding them as an accounting professional. The course will utilize a textbook and case studies in addition to guest speakers who will share their professional perspectives and experiences. There will be a review of the AICAPA's Code of Professional Conduct, and professional guidelines and codes of conduct in accounting.

BUS 458. Personal Investment Planning. (4).

Students will examine the investment concepts of time value of money and risk and return, characteristics and taxation of investment vehicles and personal investing strategy. They will also learn about concepts of modern portfolio theory, including: risk-tolerance, time horizon, asset positioning, asset allocation, diversification, risk-adjusted return and portfolio rebalancing.

BUS 460. Leadership Development. (4).

Focuses on developing and identifying the contibutors to and need for individual leadership competencies. Provides an overview of specific leadership development instruments, psychological contibutors to leadership effectiveness, and introspective evaluation of current leadership application. Prerequsite: senior standing.

BUS 461. Advanced Human Resource Management. (4).

Studies advanced human resource management problems and practices and is intended for students interested in a professional career as a human resource management specialist. Topics include selection, placement, employee development and employee relations in private and public sector organizations. Prerequisite: BUS 361.

BUS 462. Tax II. (4).

A study of tax laws and issues pertaining to business entities such as partnerships, C-corporations and S-corporations. Focuses on the taxation of estates and trusts and expands the study of personal taxation introduced in Tax I. Prerequisite: BUS 452. (offered one semester each year).

BUS 464. Project and Change Management. (UG).

Project and change management is the theory and practice of providing a product, service or result that satisfies customer requirements, constraints, and expectations while accommodating changes. Successful project management involves planning and execution through tailored communications and evolving relationships. This course provides in-depth discussions and applications of project management concepts and processes. Prerequisites:.

BUS 466. Digital Marketing. (4).

Students will study concepts related to digital platforms and how they are leveraged by brands to market the strategic customer experience. The course will help students develop an understanding of the digital customer journey touch points. Students will explore how advertising and marketing technologies interact to create seamless experiences across products and services. Prerequisites: BUS-375 or COMM-375.

BUS 467. Business Academic Competition. (4).

This course challenges students in real-world problem solving and business applications. It prepares students for academic competitions approved by School of Management in a variety of business disciplines. This course can be part of the capstone experiences in the business administration major. Instructor approval is needed to register.

BUS 469. Strategic Management. (4).

Complex business cases integrating the fields of marketing, finance, law, accounting, economics and industrial management provide a realistic view of how general managers deal with conceptual business problems. Cases include analyses of strategic, interpersonal business problems. Students evaluate mangerial strategic decisions that lead to formulations of plans and actions to achieve a company's objectives. Through examining theoretical and practical paradigms for effective management, they take a holistic view of the results and repercussions of business choices by the organization's leadership. Prerequisite: BUS 367, 374, 375, 391 and ECON-311.

BUS 470. Executive Roundtable Capstone. (4).

This course is designed to provide students with an appreciation of how business theories are integrated into the strategies of the modern business world. Business executives provide real-world perspectives on how decisions are made and business strategies are implemented. The course will conclude with a comprehensive writing assignment, and will serve as a capstone option for students in the Business Administration degree program. Pre-requisite: BUS 367, 374, 375, 391, ECON 311 AND by program approval only.

BUS 471. Real Estate Finance and Investments. (4).

The course is designed to introduce students to the many different facets of real estate - e.g. consumption good, a key element of our economy, an investment, and a career opportunity. The course will introduce students to the unique characteristics of real estate and provide a framework for decisions regarding the investments in real estate. The first section of the course provides an overview of real estate and introduces the critical analytic tool of time value of money. The second section provides the basic principles underlying the valuation of real estate - both residential and commercial. The last section of the course discusses financing real estate and focuses on residential mortgage financing. Prerequisite: BUS-391.

BUS 472. International Finance. (4).

Focuses on the financial environment surrounding multinational businesses involved in international trade, investment and financing. Covers management of current assets and liabilities, including foreign financing decisions and techniques, and investigates foreign investment decisions, feasibility analysis and capital budgeting. The course uses problem sets and case studies to reinforce the concepts discussed in class. Prerequisite: BUS 391. Recommended: senior standing.

BUS 473. Marketing Management. (4).

Focuses on the effective design and management of the marketing function in a business organization and the development of effective marketing programs. Topics include strategic marketing plans organization and incentive structures for the sales force, product launch, marketing communication and integration with other essential management functions. Prerequisites: BUS 375, senior standing.

BUS 474. International Marketing. (4).

An exploration of international marketing conditions with emphasis on foreign market research; trade promotion; political, legal, economic and cultural environments; product and service adaptability; and the development of strategic marketing plans for multinational competition. Prerequisite: BUS 375.

BUS 475. Investment Analysis/Portfolio Developmt. (4).

Provides the necessary background to critically evaluate both the practical and academic literature on investments. Stocks and bonds are addressed in market equilibrium and within the context of portfolio development. The capital asset pricing model, market efficiency and the investment environment are covered. Prerequisite: BUS 391.

BUS 476. Global Business Behavior. (4).

A review of current organizational development approaches developed in the United States and elsewhere for possible global application. Cultural influences fostering or hindering the development of effective humanistic organizations are explored. Prerequisite: BUS 394 or consent of instructor.

BUS 477. Personal Financial Planning. (4).

An in-depth study of personal budgeting and long-term planning, investment opportunities, credit, financial institutions, insurance, risk preferences and goals. Prerequisite: junior standing.

BUS 481. Financial Plan Development Course. (4).

This experiential Capstone course focuses on the activities that a financial planning professional will need to accomplish in order to create viable comprehensive plans for their clients. Students will integrate the concepts learned in the pre-requisite courses by writing and presenting an integrative, comprehensive financial plan. Pre-requisites: each of the other four courses in the minor.

BUS 482. Selected Topics. (4).

BUS 482C. ST: Select Topic (core). (1-4).

Select Topic approved for core requirement.

BUS 484. Senior Seminar in Accounting - Capstone. (4).

In this rigorous course, the emphasis will be on the application of GAAP and OCBOA rules and regulations in the preparation of financial statements using a variety of software application. There will be numerous situations where students will use their analytical skills and prepare written documents used by CPAs and accountants. Prerequisite: BUS 453 & BUS 454.

BUS 485. Seminar. (2-4).

BUS 490. Independent Study. (1-4).

BUS 492. Internship. (1-4).

BUS 493. Field Studies. (2).

BUS 496. Directed Research. (1-3).

Economics Courses

Lower Division

ECON 200. Introduction to Micro-Economics. (3).

The study of principles of economics on the firm level, including resource pricing and allocation, market structures, supply and demand. (offered one semester each year).

ECON 201. Introduction to MacRo Economics. (3).

The study of principles of economics on the national level, including the role of government and business, national income, employment, and monetary and fiscal policy.

ECON 203. General Economics. (4).

Provides a basic understanding of how economic decisions are made by individual economic agents ("micro") and within the context of large ("macro") economic systems. The course is comprised of three major sections: basic economic concepts, micro-economics and macro-economics. The course includes a series of lab activities for hands-on practice and application of micro- and macro-economic principles.

ECON 206. Economic Systems and Society. (4).

Examines the approaches of capitalist, socialist and communist societies in the development of economic systems and the formulation of governmental economic policies. Emphasis is placed on the ways in which nations attempt to use economic forces to achieve such social objectives as health care, education and social stability.

ECON 282. Selected Topics. (1-4).

ECON 282C. ST: Select Topic (core). (1-4).

Select Topic approved for core requirement.

Upper Division

ECON 301. Labor Economics. (3).

The study of the theories of wages and employment, the history and economics of the labor movement and the economics of the labor market, collective bargaining and trade unionism. Prerequisite: ECON 203.

ECON 311. Statistical Methods. (4).

The basic methods in analysis of central tendency, dispersion and probability distributions. Prerequisite: MATH 115, MATH 131, MATH 145, MATH 245 or Math 251 or equivalent.

ECON 312. Quantitative Analysis in Business. (4).

An introduction to quantitative decision making from a managerial standpoint, plus the formulation and solution of decision models under certainty and uncertainty. Topics include model building, linear programming, probability, Bayesean decision theory and simulation. Prerequisite: ECON 311.

ECON 313. Comparative Economic Systems. (4).

A comparative study of the economic goals, theories of economic organization, institutions and development processes in individual nations and the reorganized multinational economic entities. Prerequisite: ECON 203.

ECON 321. Money and Banking and Capital Markets. (4).

The study of modern monetary theories and the principles of banking, with special emphasis on the Federal Reserve System. Prerequisite: ECON 203.

ECON 406. Intermediate Macro-Economics. (4).

The study of Keynesian economics, concepts and theories of national income, stability and full employment, rate of interest and investment, including macro-economic models. Prerequisite: ECON 203.

ECON 411. Intermediate Micro-Economics. (4).

A study of the modern theory of price and the laws of supply and demand. Includes price and output determination and optimal resource allocation in different market situations and in centrally managed versus free-market economies. Prerequisite: ECON 203.

ECON 414. Economics of the Environment. (4).

Students investigate, in economic terms, various environmental problems in today's world to determine the costs and benefits of alternative approaches to environmental remediation. Also examines major policy alternatives for environmental protection. The course provides the opportunity for application of the principles of economics to the study of the environment from an economic perspective. It is designed for students with or without a background in economics. The course in its onset provides a review of the principles of economics and then moves forward to provide relevant discussions for application of such principles at a more advanced level to contribute towards finding solutions for some of the existing problems in managing our environmental resources efficiently.

ECON 416. International Economics. (4).

Includes theories of international trade and finance, comparative advantage, foreign exchange, capital movements and the impact of international currency speculation on economic performance. Prerequisite: ECON 203.

ECON 421. Advanced Statistics. (4).

Decision making using estimation techniques and tests of hypotheses and the use of advanced statistical techniques in solving problems of prediction. Prerequisite: ECON 312.

ECON 445. Research Methods - Capstone. (4).

Focuses on the application of scientific research methods to problems in marketing, management and business economics. Topics include research design and methods, sample size and sampling techniques, questionnaire design and data analysis and interpretation.

ECON 450. Econometrics. (4).

Econometrics is concerned with how to learn from economic data. Econometric techniques are increasingly used in business, government and academic setting to analyze markets, create forecasts based on past data, study the impact of economic policies, and test economic theories. The objective of this course is to provide the necessary tools to critically evaluate econometric models and to prepare students for empirical work in economics. The course will focus in some details on the linear regression model and the statistical theory behind it. Students will be provided with the opportunity to use actual economic data. Prerequisite: ECON 311.

ECON 460. Economic Development. (4).

A study of the theory and application of economic development to Third World countries. Consideration is given to the effect of the policies of major multinational economic institutions on developing economies. Prerequisite: ECON 203.

ECON 465. Global Political Economy. (4).

This course introduces some of the fundamental relationships between politics and economics, on both the domestic and international levels. Its purpose is to examine how these two aspects of human behavior are mutually dependent.

ECON 470. Research Methods-Capstone. (4).

Focuses on the application of scientific research methods to problems in marketing, management and business economics. Topics include research design and methods, sample size and sampling techniques, questionnaire design and data analysis and interpretation. Prerequisites: ECON-406, ECON-411, ECON-450.

ECON 482. Selected Topics. (1-4).

ECON 482C. ST: Select Topic (core). (1-4).

Select Topic approved for core requirement.

ECON 490. Independent Study. (1-4).

ECON 492. Internship. (1-4).

ECON 496. Directed Research. (1-3).

ECON 497. Honors Thesis. (4).


Lower Division

ENT 101. Creativity and Innovation. (4).

This course is for students who want to realize their potential as creative thinkers and problem solvers and to tackle challenges that have a global impact. In this course, you will learn to see what others do not see, to challenge what exists, to imagine what could be, and develop the skill sets to make your vision a reality. This course is designed to inspire and prepare you with the skills to combine innovation, creative thinking, entrepreneurship and business principles to turn ideas into business ventures, design innovative products and services in existing companies, or channel a passion for public service into practical solutions to the world's most pressing social, economic and environmental problems. By analyzing and understanding problems from a human perspective and applying the principles of entrepreneurship to bring them into existence, you will leave with a set of tools for developing truly innovative and disruptive ideas that can change the world.

ENT 3ST. Selected Topic. (4).

Upper Division

ENT 301. Starting a Startup From Ideas to Action. (4).

This course focuses on the transition from business concept to the evaluation of the technical and market "doability" of the project. Feasibility involves reevaluating core assumptions of the original business model through customer feedback and prototype development. The course explores ways that entrepreneurs reiterate their businesses, making adjustments as new information is generated thereby insuring product-market fit. The course also looks at the assembly of critical human, financial and social capital in the venture creation process. There is an experiential component that involves interviewing potential customers, business partners and other venture helpers.

ENT 401. Launching a Startup. (4).

This is a culminating experience where students consider the steps involved in moving a business idea from feasibility to implementation.  Students will either be involved in the development of a business plan for an independent venture, or will work in an internship on an entrepreneurial project.

ENT 420. Agile Product Development. (4).

Techniques for defining product features based on customer need, prioritizing, and refining into minimum viable product (MVP).

ENT 421. Entepeneurial Marketing & Selling. (4).

Techniques for marketing (prospect acquisition) and selling (persuading and negotiating).

ENT 423. Legal Aspects of Entrepreneurship. (4).

Elaboration on the aspects of the law most relevant to entrepreneurship: incorporation, intellectual property, employment law, customer and supplier contracts.

ENT 424. Growth-Stage Venture Management. (4).

Once a start-up discovers a viable business model, achieves product-fit, and acquires its first customers, attention turns to scaling the business rapidly, This course will teach how to plan, organize and control rapid business growth.

ENT 430. Global Entrepreneurship. (4).

Today's economy is increasingly borderless. This course is an exploration of the intersection of business and culture for companies ranging from startups to large enterprises seeking to grow beyond their national boundaries to develop, translate, adapt, and promote products and services to international markets. Special attention will be given to the impact of cross-cultural differences (especially those in non-Western cultures) on issues and situations in the development and management of a diverse, multi-cultural workforce and globalization teams. Prerequisite: ENT-101.

ENT 482. Special Topics. (1-4).

Studies in specific industries or activities that are of interest to our geographic area, student body, or adjunct instructor.

ENT 490/492. Independent Study. (1-4,1-4).




Apfelthaler (Dean)







Associate professors




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Visiting Assistant Professor


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Distinguished Executive in Residence